রবিবার, ৩১ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Aggregation Pheromones:
1. These pheromones induce aggregation or congregation of insects for protection, reproduction and feeding or combinations thereof.
2. The best known examples are the females of the bark beetle and males of the phloem beetle.
3. Some common names of aggregation pheromones are frontalin, ipsenol, periplanone, dimethyldecanol etc.
Alarm Pheromones:
1. Alarm pheromones have been reported in Homoptera, Isoptera and Hymenoptera.
2. The  pheromone is produced by a variety of organs such as a pair of cornicles or siphunculi near the tip of the abdomen in aphids.
3. It is primarily an anti predator device.
Trail Pheromones:
1. These pheromones are laid in the form of intermittent or continuous lines on a solid substrate that the trait followers perceive by their antennae to reach the destination which could be a mate or a source of food discovered by the trail marker.
2. The trail pheromones are thus used to find mates, or to utilize food resources more efficiently.
Sex Pheromones:
1. The sex pheromones represent a diverse assemblage of compounds. Though most commonly released by the females they may be released by either sex.
2. Over 150 species of insects are known in which females produce sex pheromones and about 50 in which the males do so.
3. The male & female sex pheromones differ in their property & action.
4. The female sex pheromone acts at a longer range, excites males to copulate and by and large is species specific.
5.The male sex pheromone, on the other hand, acts at a short range and only lowers the female's resistance to mating.
Insect orders producing sex pheromones. Insect orders in which sex pheromones have been detected so far are Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera and Mecoptera.

শনিবার, ৩০ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Semio-Chemicals:
Semio-chemicals are chemicals that mediate interactions between organisms. They are divided into two major groups:
1. Pheromones, which mediate in intraspecific interactions and
2. Allelo-chemicals for interspecific interactions,

Pheromones:
Chemical substances secreted by an animal to external environment which causes specific reaction on reception by other animal of the same species are called pheromones. Pheromone is an exocrine gland secretion.
Pheromones are of four kinds. They are:
a. Sex Pheromone.
b. Aggregation Pheromone.
c. Alarm Pheromone.
d. Trail-making Pheromone.

বৃহস্পতিবার, ২৮ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Allelo-Chemicals: Allelo-chemicals are non-nutritional chemical produces that produced by one species affect growth, health and behavior of another species. Allelo-chemicals are broadly classified into two categories. They are:
Allomones:
* Gives negative response to receiver.
* Act as a defensive chemical for plants.
* Deterrent to insects feeding and oviposition.
* Directly kill the insects.
Kairomone:
* Give positive response to receiver.
* Act as an attractant.
* Stimulate feeding and oviposition.

বুধবার, ২৭ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Usefulness of Budgeting:
1. It creates estimates for the cost and quality of labor, equipment & date of consumed or applied.
2. Easily detect when budgets have been missed and take corrective action quickly to protect cash flow position.
3. Compare actual costs with estimated costs at any time in real time.
4. Analyze budget figures & actual figures grouped by land, produce etc.
5.Use estimated quantities of materials to assist with the creation of purchase orders and supply from materials provides.
6. Define labor cost for each type of labor rate and pay rate.
7. Define hourly or per running unit cost for equipment and plant or machinery.
8. Use estimated quantities of labor to assist with the planing of human resources.

মঙ্গলবার, ২৬ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Cropping Scheme: It is a practical & ready guide for the cropping enterprises of particular farm. In other words, it refers to the detailed budget of crop production at a particular farm for a given season showing item wise cost, estimate, i.e. of different crops and expected income and all expenses.
Contents:
1. Name of the farm.
2. Duration.
3. Field reference: (a) Plot no. (b) Plot area (c) Block no.
4. Name of the crops grown during last 4 years.
5. Details of immediately preceding crops.
6. Details of proposed crops.
7. Details of amount of money to be collected: (a) For cost of cultivation (b) For non cultivation charges (c) Total charges (d) Expected return from the crops.
8. Remarks.
9. Enclosures: (a) Detailed lay out of the farm (b) Detailed labor statement (c) Seed schedule (d) Manure & fertilizer schedule (e) Pesticide & plant protection schedule (f) Statement of non cultivation charges (g) Abstract.
Farm Budgeting: It is a method of estimating expected income, expenses and profit for a farm business. Budgeting can be used to select the most profitable plan from among a number of alternatives and to test the profitability of any proposed change in plan.It involves testing a new plan before implementing it, to be sure that it will improve profit.
Budgeting is an essential requirement of any farm's management and is an integral component of overall farm planing. While farm planing and indeed budgeting can and is as complex and sophisticated as one desires.
Types: Generally speaking there are two types of farm plans. They are:
1. Partial budgets.
2. Complete budgets.