রবিবার, ৩১ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Aggregation Pheromones:
1. These pheromones induce aggregation or congregation of insects for protection, reproduction and feeding or combinations thereof.
2. The best known examples are the females of the bark beetle and males of the phloem beetle.
3. Some common names of aggregation pheromones are frontalin, ipsenol, periplanone, dimethyldecanol etc.
Alarm Pheromones:
1. Alarm pheromones have been reported in Homoptera, Isoptera and Hymenoptera.
2. The  pheromone is produced by a variety of organs such as a pair of cornicles or siphunculi near the tip of the abdomen in aphids.
3. It is primarily an anti predator device.
Trail Pheromones:
1. These pheromones are laid in the form of intermittent or continuous lines on a solid substrate that the trait followers perceive by their antennae to reach the destination which could be a mate or a source of food discovered by the trail marker.
2. The trail pheromones are thus used to find mates, or to utilize food resources more efficiently.
Sex Pheromones:
1. The sex pheromones represent a diverse assemblage of compounds. Though most commonly released by the females they may be released by either sex.
2. Over 150 species of insects are known in which females produce sex pheromones and about 50 in which the males do so.
3. The male & female sex pheromones differ in their property & action.
4. The female sex pheromone acts at a longer range, excites males to copulate and by and large is species specific.
5.The male sex pheromone, on the other hand, acts at a short range and only lowers the female's resistance to mating.
Insect orders producing sex pheromones. Insect orders in which sex pheromones have been detected so far are Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera and Mecoptera.

শনিবার, ৩০ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Semio-Chemicals:
Semio-chemicals are chemicals that mediate interactions between organisms. They are divided into two major groups:
1. Pheromones, which mediate in intraspecific interactions and
2. Allelo-chemicals for interspecific interactions,

Pheromones:
Chemical substances secreted by an animal to external environment which causes specific reaction on reception by other animal of the same species are called pheromones. Pheromone is an exocrine gland secretion.
Pheromones are of four kinds. They are:
a. Sex Pheromone.
b. Aggregation Pheromone.
c. Alarm Pheromone.
d. Trail-making Pheromone.

বৃহস্পতিবার, ২৮ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Allelo-Chemicals: Allelo-chemicals are non-nutritional chemical produces that produced by one species affect growth, health and behavior of another species. Allelo-chemicals are broadly classified into two categories. They are:
Allomones:
* Gives negative response to receiver.
* Act as a defensive chemical for plants.
* Deterrent to insects feeding and oviposition.
* Directly kill the insects.
Kairomone:
* Give positive response to receiver.
* Act as an attractant.
* Stimulate feeding and oviposition.

বুধবার, ২৭ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Usefulness of Budgeting:
1. It creates estimates for the cost and quality of labor, equipment & date of consumed or applied.
2. Easily detect when budgets have been missed and take corrective action quickly to protect cash flow position.
3. Compare actual costs with estimated costs at any time in real time.
4. Analyze budget figures & actual figures grouped by land, produce etc.
5.Use estimated quantities of materials to assist with the creation of purchase orders and supply from materials provides.
6. Define labor cost for each type of labor rate and pay rate.
7. Define hourly or per running unit cost for equipment and plant or machinery.
8. Use estimated quantities of labor to assist with the planing of human resources.

মঙ্গলবার, ২৬ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Cropping Scheme: It is a practical & ready guide for the cropping enterprises of particular farm. In other words, it refers to the detailed budget of crop production at a particular farm for a given season showing item wise cost, estimate, i.e. of different crops and expected income and all expenses.
Contents:
1. Name of the farm.
2. Duration.
3. Field reference: (a) Plot no. (b) Plot area (c) Block no.
4. Name of the crops grown during last 4 years.
5. Details of immediately preceding crops.
6. Details of proposed crops.
7. Details of amount of money to be collected: (a) For cost of cultivation (b) For non cultivation charges (c) Total charges (d) Expected return from the crops.
8. Remarks.
9. Enclosures: (a) Detailed lay out of the farm (b) Detailed labor statement (c) Seed schedule (d) Manure & fertilizer schedule (e) Pesticide & plant protection schedule (f) Statement of non cultivation charges (g) Abstract.
Farm Budgeting: It is a method of estimating expected income, expenses and profit for a farm business. Budgeting can be used to select the most profitable plan from among a number of alternatives and to test the profitability of any proposed change in plan.It involves testing a new plan before implementing it, to be sure that it will improve profit.
Budgeting is an essential requirement of any farm's management and is an integral component of overall farm planing. While farm planing and indeed budgeting can and is as complex and sophisticated as one desires.
Types: Generally speaking there are two types of farm plans. They are:
1. Partial budgets.
2. Complete budgets.

সোমবার, ২৫ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Farm Layout: Farm layout generally means the physical arrangement of the farm that is arrangement of fields, buildings, roads, channels etc.
Objectives: In broader sense the objective of farm layout in a new farm is to arrange the farm physically in such a way that maximum return can be obtained with minimum investment. Specially
1. To use the farm land intensively.
2. To provide proper irrigation & drainage to make successful crop production.
3. To make easy & cheap transportation.
4. To protect the crops from damage of necessary physical structures such as godowns, cow-sheds, workshop, labor shed etc.
For Old Farm: Many times there might be necessary to change lay out in old farm generally for the following reasons:
1. Change in power.
2. Change in enterprise.
3. Change in technology and so on.

রবিবার, ২৪ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Chemical Substances:
1. Insecticides:  An insecticide is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides & larvicides used against insect eggs & larvae, respectively. Example: Malathion, Sevin etc.
2. Attractant: It is a chemical substance which attracts insects towards its sources for feeding, mating & oviposition is called attractant. Example: Food lures, Pheromones etc.
3.Repellant: It is a chemical substance which leads the insect pests to move away from the source.
Example: Dibutyl succinate (fly) etc.
4. Antifeedant: The antifeedants are chemicals which inhibit or deter the feeding of insects on the natural food. Example: Neem oil, Pyrethrum, Baygon etc.

শুক্রবার, ২২ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Five Important Requirements for Successful Grafting:
1. The root stock & scion must be compatible.
2. The cambial region of the scion must be placed in intimate contact with that of the stock.
3. The grafting operation must be done at the time when the stock & scion in the upper physiological stage.
4. All cut surface of the root stock & scion must be protected from desiccation i.e. grafting operation is completed within a short time.
5. Proper care must be given to the graft until the graft completion.
Precautions:
1.Young & non-bearing trees should not be selected as mother plant.
2.A hot & very dry season as well as heavy rainfall during the in arching should be avoided.
3. The cut surface should be smooth.
4. Remove the plastic stripes from the graft joint after completion the graft.
5. Remove the newly sprouting twigs above or below the graft point of the rootstock plants.
6. Protect the saplings from pests, diseases & heavy wind etc.
Contact grafting: It can be defined as the process in which the stock plant approaches to the scion and the scion plant is not removed from its mother plant until union in between two cambium layers takes place and then separated from the mother plant.
Reasons for grafting:
1. Perpetuating clones that cannot be readily maintained by cutting.
2.Obtaining the benefits of certain root stock.
3. Obtaining cultivars of established plants.
4. Obtaining the special from of plant growth.
5. Repairing the damage plant parts.
6. Studying virus diseases.
Materials required:
1. Scion plant & root stock plant    2.Budding knife     3. Secateurs 
4. Polythene strips                5. Rope or thread       6. Wax material.

বৃহস্পতিবার, ২১ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Global warming is now a great concern, especially for the countries which are situated near sea or ocean. Poor countries or the countries which have less literate people, weak economy, less opportunity of jobs which increase inflation can cause severe damage along with global warming. Most alarming is that it changes the world ecology everyday. Many plant & animal species are now in danger of extinction. Some are already gone & some are now on the way of going. If we don't raise our voices right now world ecology will change permanently. That can cause a disastrous situation for those countries & also for the world.
So we must be more cautious about our environment so that we can give a comfortable & healthy future to our off-spring. Please think about it right now.   

বুধবার, ২০ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Bearing habit of fruit trees: Mode of arrangement of flower, flower buds, inflorescence and fruits is called bearing habit of fruit trees.
There are mainly 4 types of bearing habit present in fruit trees. They are:
1. Terminal bearing habit: develop on terminal part of spur. Example: mango, litchi, pineapple, apple, peach, olive etc.
2. Lateral bearing habit: develop on lateral part of spur. Example: date palm, citrus, coconut, grape, avocado, tamarind etc.
3. Mixed bearing habit: develop on both terminal & lateral part of spur. Example: guava, apple, pear, hog plum, etc.
4. Adventitious bearing habit: Develop on other parts other than spur. Example: jack fruit, averrhoa, lotcon etc.

মঙ্গলবার, ১৯ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Types of  Pruning:
Depending on the plant parts to be pruned:
1. Shoot/ branch pruning.
2. Leaf pruning.
3. Root pruning.
4. Flower & fruit pruning.
5. Bark pruning/ ringing.

Depending on severity of pruning:
1. Hard pruning.
2. Moderate pruning.
3. Light pruning.

Pruning Tools:
   The following tools are commonly used:
  1. Secateurs.
  2. Pruning Shear.
  3. Pruning Saw etc.

রবিবার, ১৭ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Training: It is a special type of pruning in which the plants are given to a definite size and shape.
                                                                or
Training is a part of pruning. When pruning is done at the early stage of plant to provide desired size & shape is known as training.

Objectives of Training:
1. To develop proper framework of the plant.
2. To control the direction of growth.
3.To provide desired shape & size of the plant for beautification.
4. To resist plant from adverse condition like wind & storm.
5. To accommodate maximum plant population per unit area.
6. To make different cultural operation easier.


শুক্রবার, ১৫ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Pruning: It is the art & science in which plant parts are removed for beautification, growth, flowering & productivity of the plants.
                                                                or
Pruning is a regular part of plant maintenance involving the selective removal of specific plant parts.

Objective of Pruning:
1. To bring about balance between vegetative growth and flowering.
2. To increase productivity & quality of flowers.
3. To reduce intra plant competition.
4. To repair injury.
5. To improve the appearance or health of a plant.
6. To make plant in permanent vegetative condition.
7. To increase flower bearing branches.
8. To rejuvenate old plants.
9. To provide proper sunlight & aeration of plant.
10. To increase beauty of the garden.

বৃহস্পতিবার, ১৪ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Orchard: It can be defined as an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production. For commercial production it comprises fruit or nut producing trees. Orchards are also sometimes a feature of large gardens, where they serve an aesthetic purpose as well as a productive purpose.
Gardens: To look pretty/ aesthetic gratification.
Establishment of orchard: It is a long term investment and deserves a very critical planting. The selection of proper location and site, planting system and planting distance, choosing the varieties and the nursery plants have to be considered carefully to ensure maximum production.

মঙ্গলবার, ১২ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Vitamin Rich Fruits:
Vitamin-A: Jack fruit, Mango, Papaya, Bael, Orange (ripen) etc.
Vitamin B: Papaya, Litchi, Pineapple, Wood apple, Banana, Cashew nut etc.
Vitamin C: Aonla, Guava, Jujube, Lime, Lemon, Olive, Hog plum etc.

Mineral Rich Fruits:
  Ca: Date palm, Aonla, Emblica, Cashew nut etc.
   P: Litchi, Banana, Pomegranate etc.
  Fe: Guava, Sapota, Green Mango, Banana, Date Palm etc.
  Mn: Coconut.
CHO: Banana, Jack fruit, Mango, Papaya, Water melon etc.
Protein: Cashew nut, Coconut, Jack fruit etc.
 Fat: Coconut, Avocado, Cashew nut etc.

রবিবার, ১০ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Some features of Fruits & Vegetables:

Fruits: Fruit plants are usually perennial (exception: watermelon, strawberry, banana etc.) They are usually asexsually propagated (exception: jackfruit, jamun, aonla etc.) Fruit plants require especial practices like training & pruning & are required seasonally. Plants are generally woody (exception: watermelon, strawberry, gooseberry, banana etc). Mostly consumed in fresh condition after or before ripening.

Vegetables: Most vegetable plants are annual (exception: drumstick). Mostly sexsually propagated (exception: teasle gourd, pointed gourd, potato etc.)
Cultivation is seasonal and especial techniques like pruning & training are generally not required. Plants are generally non-woody (exception: drum stick). Generally consumed after cooking.

From these features of fruits & vegetables we can easily differentiate between fruits & vegetables.

শনিবার, ৯ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Pomology: It is one of the major part of horticulture which deals with fruit production. Pomology is the combination of two Latin words i.e. "pome" and "ology". Pome meaning fruit and ology meaning branch of learning. Pomology is the science of fruit growing. It can be defined as the branch of horticulture which deals with the production, processing, storage and marketing of fruit.
Pomology is further sub-divided in the following classes:
1. Practical Pomology: Practical pomology is referred to as fruit production. Modern scientist refer to pomology as the actual growing of fruit.
2. Commercial Pomology: It deals primarily with the marketing and disposition of fruits. It also deals with fruit storage, preparation and market and many other areas, transportation and outlets etc.
3.Systematic Pomology: It can be defined as the knowledge of plants as they grow, their distintions and their habit in growth.
Pomology is a vast area for researcher because fruits are delicious food with lots of vitamins & minerals. Fruits also contain fat & protein. It is also liked by the people of all ages in the world. So without fruit production & research with the production procedure of fruit, it will very difficult to fulfill the demand of fruit.

শুক্রবার, ৮ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

In previous post name of the principals of heterosis fixation was listed now a short note on that principals will be discussed:
a. Vegetative Propagation: Vegetative cell is diploid & it's production depends on mitosis. So heterosis can be easily conserved in vegetatively propagated crops. Example- Sugarcane, sweet potato, banana, potato etc.
b. Apomixis: Seeds are developed without fertilization in apomixis. Sothe apomictic progeny is identical to the mother plant. Example- Citrus, blackberries, roses & many other flowering plants.
c.Balanced lethal system: This principal lead the fixation process in some plants. Only heterozygotes survive because homozygous are lethal hence they die. Example- Oenothera spp.
d. Polyploidy: Especially in interspecific and intergeneric hybrids heterosis can also be fixed by chromosome doubling or polyploidy. Example- Wheat-rye cross is sterile, which becomes fertile after doubling chromosome and exhibit heterosis.

Inbreeding: It is the mating between individuals related by descent.

Inbreeding depression: It can be defined as the reduction or loss in vigor & fertility due to close inbreeding. It stars from the second generation.

বৃহস্পতিবার, ৭ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Occurrence of Heterosis in cross and self-pollinated crops:
Among the cultivated crop plants Heterosis has been frequently reported in maize, bajra, sorghum, brinjal, onion, tobacco, barley, wheat, castor, rice, cotton, sunflower, grasses, sugar beet, legumes etc.
This phenomenon is commercially utilized in crops like onion, bajra, sorghum, tomato, sugar beet etc.
Estimation of Heterosis: There are three different ways of estimating heterosis-
(1) Average or Relative heterosis
(2) Heterobeltiosis
(3) Useful or standard or Economic heterosis
Fixation of Heterosis:
It can be defined as the mechanism to ensure the heterotic gene combinations produced in heterotic hybrids remain intact in subsequent generation constitutes is called fixation of heterosis.
There are four principal ways of fixation of heterosis:
a. Vegetative propagation
b. Apomixis
c. Balanced lethal system
d. Polyploidy

বুধবার, ৬ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Heterosis: It is one kind of genetic phenomenon & can be defined as the showing of increased vigor or superiority over it's parents by the hybrid of two genetically dissimilar parents. If 1st generation shows decreased vigor over parents it is also considered as heterosis but conditioning crop improvement e.g days to maturity, plant height, disease or pest infestation etc.

General features of Heterosis:
1. Heterosis is a widely occurring biological or genetic phenomenon in both the plant & animals species.
2. In plant it occurs frequently rather than in animal species.
3. It occurs frequently in a number of cross pollinated species than the self-pollinated species.
4. Heterotic crosses usually show good results on off spring plant like increased in size, vigor, seed production capability, better resistance to insect or diseases, increased metabolic activity, better stability etc.
5. Ultimately it results in the better performance of the hybrid than the parents.

মঙ্গলবার, ৫ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

Gene pool: The sum total of genes in a crop species is referred to as genetic or gene pool or genetic stock or germplasm. In other words gene pool refers to a whole library of different alleles of a species. Germplasm is the primary element for a plant breeder to initiate plant breeding program.

Some important features of germplasm or gene pool are given below:
1. Gene pool represents the entire genetic variability of a species.
2. Germplasm includes both cultivated & wild species or relatives of crop plants.
3. Germplasm is the basic material for launching a crop improvement program.
4. Germplasm is collected from the centres of diversity, gene banks, gene sanctuaries, farmers fields, markets, seed companies.
5. Germplasm may be indigenous or exotic.

সোমবার, ৪ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

CROP REPORTING: It is he preparation of a written statement about a standing crop in respect of growth, development, cultural practices, weather of the season and other situational status together with predicted yield, necessary suggestions to be taken for improving crop rotation made after vanishing the field practically.

Objectives:
1. Condition of the crop should bring under consideration.
2. In future intercultural operations will be needed should keep under consideration.
3.Past statistical information on the reported crop.
4. Give the crop fore casting.
5. Establish the system to develop planting about the crop by the farmers Government.

রবিবার, ৩ আগস্ট, ২০১৪

CROP ROTATION
It may be defined as more or less recurrent succession of a set of selected crops grown on a given land for a particular/ definite period according to a definite plan.
It may be one, two, three or even four years rotation depending upon the crops, climatic condition and soil topography/ type of the region/ locality.

Practicing of crop rotation 4 (four) things are to be considered:

1. Fixed land
2. Particular time period
3. Selected crops
4. Cropping pattern of those crops.

Advantages of crop rotation:
1.It helps to control weeds, insects, diseases and pests.
2. It helps to maintain soil fertility.
3. It helps in crop adaptation.
4. Market demand can be fulfilled.
5. Economy of labors can be maintained etc.
Agriculture is developing day by day but for the nations of third world countries efficient farming system is not maintaining still now due to many problems. Financial problem is one of the major problems & also the effect of greenhouse effect which is created by the developed countries or the 1st world countries making a great problem for the sustainable agriculture system in third world countries. So we should help the third world countries to overcome these problem & for that honest willing of the developed or 1st world countries is needed & should extend their helping hand to them.